yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo
yatra pārtho dhanur-dharaḥ
tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir
dhruvā nītir matir mama
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 18.78
Wherever there is Krishna, the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory, extraordinary power, and morality. That is my opinion..
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The Bhagavad-gita began with an inquiry of Dhritarashtra’s. He was hopeful of the victory of his sons, assisted by great warriors like Bhishma, Drona and Karna. He was hopeful that the victory would be on his side. But after describing the scene on the battlefield, Sanjaya told the King, “You are thinking of victory, but my opinion is that where Krishna and Arjuna are present, there will be all good fortune.” He directly confirmed that Dhritarashtra could not expect victory for his side. Victory was certain for the side of Arjuna because Krishna was there. Krishna’s acceptance of the post of charioteer for Arjuna was an exhibition of another opulence. Krishna is full of all opulences, and renunciation is one of them. There are many instances of such renunciation, for Krishna is also the master of renunciation.
The fight was actually between Duryodhana and Yudhishthira. Arjuna was fighting on behalf of his elder brother, Yudhishthira. Because Krishna and Arjuna were on the side of Yudhishthira, Yudhishthira’s victory was certain. The battle was to decide who would rule the world, and Sanjaya predicted that the power would be transferred to Yudhishthira. It is also predicted here that Yudhishthira, after gaining victory in this battle, would flourish more and more because not only was he righteous and pious but he was also a strict moralist. He never spoke a lie during his life.
There are many less intelligent persons who take Bhagavad-gita to be a discussion of topics between two friends on a battlefield. But such a book cannot be scripture. Some may protest that Krishna incited Arjuna to fight, which is immoral, but the reality of the situation is clearly stated: Bhagavad-gita is the supreme instruction in morality. The supreme instruction of morality is stated in the Ninth Chapter, in the thirty-fourth verse: man-mana bhava mad-bhaktah. One must become a devotee of Krishna, and the essence of all religion is to surrender unto Krishna (sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja). The instructions of Bhagavad-gita constitute the supreme process of religion and of morality. All other processes may be purifying and may lead to this process, but the last instruction of the Gita is the last word in all morality and religion: surrender unto Krishna. This is the verdict of the Eighteenth Chapter.
From Bhagavad-gita we can understand that to realize oneself by philosophical speculation and by meditation is one process, but to fully surrender unto Krishna is the highest perfection. This is the essence of the teachings of Bhagavad-gita. The path of regulative principles according to the orders of social life and according to the different courses of religion may be a confidential path of knowledge. But although the rituals of religion are confidential, meditation and cultivation of knowledge are still more confidential. And surrender unto Krishna in devotional service in full Krishna consciousness is the most confidential instruction. That is the essence of the Eighteenth Chapter.
Another feature of Bhagavad-gita is that the actual truth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna. The Absolute Truth is realized in three features—impersonal Brahman, localized Paramatma, and ultimately the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna. Perfect knowledge of the Absolute Truth means perfect knowledge of Krishna. If one understands Krishna, then all the departments of knowledge are part and parcel of that understanding. Krishna is transcendental, for He is always situated in His eternal internal potency. The living entities are manifested of His energy and are divided into two classes, eternally conditioned and eternally liberated. Such living entities are innumerable, and they are considered fundamental parts of Krishna. Material energy is manifested into twenty-four divisions. The creation is effected by eternal time, and it is created and dissolved by external energy. This manifestation of the cosmic world repeatedly becomes visible and invisible.
In Bhagavad-gita five principal subject matters have been discussed: the Supreme Personality of Godhead, material nature, the living entities, eternal time and all kinds of activities. All is dependent on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna. All conceptions of the Absolute Truth—impersonal Brahman, localized Paramatma and any other transcendental conception—exist within the category of understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although superficially the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the living entity, material nature and time appear to be different, nothing is different from the Supreme. But the Supreme is always different from everything. Lord Caitanya’s philosophy is that of “inconceivable oneness and difference.” This system of philosophy constitutes perfect knowledge of the Absolute Truth.
The living entity in his original position is pure spirit. He is just like an atomic particle of the Supreme Spirit. Thus Lord Krishna may be compared to the sun, and the living entities to sunshine. Because the living entities are the marginal energy of Krishna, they have a tendency to be in contact either with the material energy or with the spiritual energy. In other words, the living entity is situated between the two energies of the Lord, and because he belongs to the superior energy of the Lord, he has a particle of independence. By proper use of that independence he comes under the direct order of Krishna. Thus he attains his normal condition in the pleasure-giving potency.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
As for the commentary on the last five verses, which brings out the purport of the whole Gita, they were written on two pages, which have been taken away by the carrier of Ganesa (a rat). I have not bothered to write them again. They were a trifling matter. Let that be. Thus the commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita called Sarartha Darsini have been completed.
May this shower of meanings of the essence of scripture, which give benefit to the whole world, delight the devotee cataka birds with its sweetness and may the pleasure they derive from it light up my heart.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
18.78 Wherever there is Sri Krsna, the son of Vasudeva, the ‘Yogesvara’ who is the ruler of the various manifestations of Nature pertaining to all intelligent and non-intelligent entities that have high and low forms, and on whose volition depend the differences in the essential natures, existences and the activities of all things other than Himself, and wherever there is Arjuna, the archer, who is his paternal aunt’s son and who took sole refuge at His feet — in such places there always will be present fortune, victory, wealth and sound morality. Such is my firm conviction.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
The internal intention Sanjaya is implying with this statement is that the dynasty of the Kauravas should give up all hopes of winning the battle and rulership of the entire Earth. Wherever Lord Krishna is present together with Arjuna then prosperity, victory, opulence and righteousness will also be present. The word dhruva means firmly established and qualifies that the preceding qualities are guaranteed. Sanjaya is subtly implying that it is not too late for the Kauravas even on the brink of war, to lay down their weapons and take refuge of Lord Krishna by sharing the kingdom with the Pandavas. All Arjuna and His four brothers requested in the whole Earth was 5 provinces, one for each brother. The wicked King Duryodhana of the Kauravas retorted that he would not grant them land enough to fit on the top of a needle. But now they had to fight to the death for the single rulership of the total Earth. So the implied advice to save the dynasty fell on deaf ears.
One who is devoted to Lord Krishna easily achieves moksa or liberation from material existence and release from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. This is acquired by His Grace through knowledge of His personal bestowal to all jivas or embodied beings the atma or immortal soul which insures continuity in existence and gives the opportunity to return to spiritual existence. This factually is the essential teaching of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita without having comprehended the final conclusion cannot be appreciated.
Bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord is the most potent and efficacious means to achieve liberation and combined with knowledge of the atma is the essential intermediate step to attain eternal communion with the Supreme Lord. It cannot be stated logically and is quite unreasonable that knowledge is the same as devotion; for just to have knowledge of something does not preclude that one will have devotion for it. Lord Krishna has already given examples. In chapter 10 verse 10 He states: Those devoted to Him receive the grace by which they can ascend to Him. In chapter 13, verse 18 He states: That b devotion His devotees becomes qualified to attain Him. In chapter 18 verse 55 He states: That only by devotion can He be truly known. The Vedic scriptures also confirm this. The Svetasvatara Upanisad VI.XV beginning eko hanso bhuvanas yasya states: Only by knowing the Supreme Lord as He is may one transcend the cycle of birth and death. This theme is found confirmed in the Vedas, the Upanisads and the Puranas alike. The conclusion summed up appropriately in verse XXIII of the same Upanisad beginning yasya deve para bhaktiryatha states: That only by bhakti to the Supreme Lord Krishna and devotion to the spiritual preceptor who delivered one to Lord Krishna will the eternal spiritual truths shine illustriously within the heart of such a surrendered servitor. Therefore it is established that only by bhakti can communion with the Supreme Lord by attained.
With the understanding bequeathed by the Supreme Lord has this commentary on Srimad Bhagavad-Gita been composed. May the Supreme Lord Krishna who is intrinsically filled with bliss be pleased by this. This commentary entitled Subodhini has been written by the celibate monk in the renounced order known as Sridhar Swami. He has placed on it the glory that is worthy of its due by receiving the foot dust of the blessed Supreme Lord Krishna.
Does a person who desires to recover jewels lying on the bottom of the sea futilely attempt to bail out the ocean with the palms of his hands or does he get an able bodied captain and a ship. In the same way does a person who desires to understand the ultimate truths revealed in Srimad Bhagavad-Gita by relying on the strength of his own intellect. Therefore the absolute conclusion is that one must first be accepted by a Vaisnava spiritual master and learn submissively from him in order to be able to comprehend and understand this supreme science spoken by Lord Krishna known as Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna declares that there is no human more exalted then He who devotes his life disseminating the teachings of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to His devotees and explains the meaning of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to others. By these words the topmost gradation of human beings has been elucidated. This applies specially to all human species and specifically to the demigods in the heavenly planets.
The spiritual potency of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita is so sublime and phenomenal that even by aurally hearing this science recited by a devotee of Lord Krishna leads to moksa or liberation from material existence and release from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Knowledge of the atma or immortal soul and its eternal relationship with Lord Krishna increases one’s individual consciousness exponentially. Even those who have achieved moksa still derive the greatest pleasure from listening to it explained from the mouth of a devotee and those devotees who are imbued with a life of austerity and devotion it becomes like aural nectar. The demigods in the heavenly planets whose minds are greatly enhanced know the entire Srimad Bhagavad-Gita by memory get immense pleasure from singing it as a divine song in the anustup meter consisting of 32 syllables per measure. Their is no greater pleasure or joy then derived from discoursing on Srimad Bhagavad- Gita’s chapters, verses or even half a verse.
Full body prostrated obeisance unto the Supreme Lord Krishna, the dearest and most precious of all that is dear and precious. He alone is the embodiment of all wonderful attributes and superlative qualities, having no defects and He bestows nityananda eternal bliss. The Supreme Lord Krishna is endowed with sat eternal existence, cit unlimited consciousness and ananda or endless bliss. He is always the recipient of glorification and worship from Brahma, Shiva, Laksmi, Surya the sungod, Vayu the god of wind and others.
There have been three forms of Vayu who have appeared in the last three yugas or ages. Their appearances are of mystical confidential context. First in Treta Yuga was Hanuman the servitor of Lord Rama who discovered the whereabouts of Sita-devi and originally spoke the Ramayana prior to Valmiki as well devastating the demoniac armies of Ravana. Second in Dvarpara Yuga was Bhima of the Pandavas who following the commands of Lord Krishna destroyed the demoniac Kaurava dynasty which was inimical to dharma or eternal righeouness. Third in Kali Yuga is the sage known as Madhvacarya who put the mayavadis impersonalist into flight by composing this commentary propounding the glorious Srimad Bhagavad-Gita and eulogising the Supreme Lord Krishna.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
The Supreme Lord Krishna is the absolute controller and self sustaining, independent sovereign of all, the most worthy of adoration, worship and propitiation, the bestower of all blessing and benedictions and the creator, maintainer, protector and sustainer of all creation. The intelligent aspirant desiring their own best welfare should completely surrender unto Him accepting Him alone as their only refuge.
I bow down to the Supreme Lord Krishna, the origin of all creation, the ultimate source and the ultimate goal, who out causeless compassion and merciful magnaminity for His devotees, manifested a ship in the form of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to save His devotees who are drowning in the ocean of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death.
I seek refuge in the Supreme Lord Krishna, who as an incarnation assumed the form of the swan Hamsa to transmit the eternal spiritual knowledge of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita to Sanaka and his brothers who subsequently empowered His Holiness Nimbadityacarya the establisher of the Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya.
His Holiness Nimbadityacarya wrote a deep and profound commentary on Srimad Bhagavad-Gita; but his commentary was so esoteric and complex that I, Keshava Kashmiri acquiring spiritual wisdom by devout meditation on his holy feet have received inspired insight into his purports with the purpose of simplifying the explanation while illuminating the meaning. Hence my commentary clearly enlightens his purports in this way and is factually a commentary on His Holiness Nimbadityacarya’s commentary on Srimad Bhagavad- Gita.
Now this commentary known as the Enligtener of the Principles of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita has been completed by Dig Vijaya Sri Bharati Keshava Kashmiri Bhattacarya…..OM Sri Krishnarpanam astu.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
18.78 To be brief, yatra, where, the side on which; there is Krsna, yogeswarah, the Lord of yogas-who is the Lord of all the yogas and the source of all the yogas, since they originate from Him; and yatra, where, the side on which; there is Partha, dhanurdharah, the wielder of the bow, of the bow called Gandiva; tatra, there, on that side of the Pandavas; are srih, fortune; vijayah, victory; and there itself is bhutih, prosperity, great abundance of fortune; and dhruva, unfailing; nitih, prudence. Such is me, my ; matih, conviction.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
18.74-78 Ityaham etc. upto matir mama While concluding the [Krsna-Arjuna] dialogue with Sanjaya’s speech, the [sage Vyasa] teaches this : What leads to the Absolute Brahman is nothing but the recollection of the purport of the dialogue–a recollection that is led finally to the status of the highly vivid, direct cognition admitting no differentiation [between its subject and object], resulting from the continuity helped by the series of incessant contemplations [on the purport of the dialogue] according to the method of firmly fixing. Thus, only through the recollection of the dialogue of the Bhagavat and Arjuna, the Reality could be reached and due to that come fortunes, voctories and prosperity.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
yatra yogesvarah krsno
yatra partho dhanur-dharah
tatra srir vijayo bhutir
dhruva nitir matir mama
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
yatra — where; yoga-īśvaraḥ — the master of mysticism; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; yatra — where; pārthaḥ — the son of Pṛthā; dhanuḥ-dharaḥ — the carrier of the bow and arrow; tatra — there; śrīḥ — opulence; vijayaḥ — victory; bhūtiḥ — exceptional power; dhruvā — certain; nītiḥ — morality; matiḥ mama — my opinion.