yayā svapnaḿ bhayaḿ śokaḿ
viṣādaḿ madam eva ca
na vimuñcati durmedhā
dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 18.35
And that determination which cannot go beyond dreaming, fearfulness, lamentation, moroseness and illusion—such unintelligent determination, O son of Pritha, is in the mode of darkness.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
It should not be concluded that a person in the mode of goodness does not dream. Here “dream” means too much sleep. Dreaming is always present; either in the mode of goodness, passion or ignorance, dreaming is a natural occurrence. But those who cannot avoid oversleeping, who cannot avoid the pride of enjoying material objects, who are always dreaming of lording it over the material world, and whose life, mind and senses are thus engaged, are considered to have determination in the mode of ignorance.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
No commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
18.35 That Dhrti by which a foolish person does not give up, i.e. persists in, sleep, and sensuous indulgence through the activities of the mind, vital force etc., — that Dhrti is of the nature of Tamas. The terms fear, grief and depression indicate the objects generating fear, grief etc. That Dhrti by which one maintains the activities of the mind, the vital force etc., as a means for these, is of the nature of Tamas.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
The dhrita or determination whereby a jiva or embodied being due to acute lack of intelligence is unable to abandon sleep, fear, grief, dejection and delusion is declared by Lord Krishna as situated in tama guna the mode of ignorance.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
One who exhibits dhriti or determination yet follows dharma or righteousness in a haphazard way sometimes adhering and sometimes opposing is situated in raja guna the mode of passion and one who is so deluded that they are unable to discriminate between what is real and what is unreal, what is appropriate and what is inappropriate and what is beneficial and what is detrimental is situated in tama guna or mode of ignorance. Fear, lamentation and dejection which are the indication of delusion are the by products. Exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord is known as bhakti and is situated exclusively in sattva guna the mode of goodness. Because bhakti is transcendental and not mundane it is virtuous and blissful. What is recommended by the Vaisnava’s, saintly sages and learned elderly as well as what is prescribed in the Vedic scriptures is always considered undeniably to be situated in sattva guna and whatever is done contrary to this is in raja guna and whatever repudiates this in tama guna. This is well corroborated in the Bhagavat Purana. The Padma Purana states that by the grace of the Supreme Lord one becomes internally elated and such elation becomes luminous.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Here Lord Krishna explains that dhriti or determination situated in tama guna or mode of ignorance is dominated by evil and wickedness whose discriminatory faculties are focused on demoniac activities prohibited in the Vedic scriptures such as cow killing which they will not abandon on their own volition. Due to constant speculation reality for them is a fog of doubts and despondency acerbated by fears and grief and uncertainty.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
18.35 That firmness is mata, considered to be; tamasi, born of tamas; yaya, due to which; durmedha, a person with a corrupt intellect; na vimuncati, does not give up-indeed, holds fast to; svapnam, sleep; bhayam, fear; sokam, sorrow; visadam, despondency; eva ca, as also; madam, sensuality, enjoyment of objects-mentally holding these as things that must always be resorted to, considering them to be greatly important to himself, like a drunkard thinking of wine. The threefold division of action as also of agents according to the differences of the gunas has been stated. After that, now is being stated the threefold division of results and happiness:
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
18.33-35 Dhrtya etc. upto Tamasi mata. One restrains the activities of his mind, living breath and senses, with Yoga : i.e., thinking ‘What is the use for me by enjoying etc. ? Let me be delighted in the Self by all means.’ Consequently : not with much indulgence. That content whereby one fixes pleasure as his goal only in sleep, fight etc.-that content is of the Tamas (Strand).
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
yaya svapnam bhayam sokam
visadam madam eva ca
na vimuñcati durmedha
dhrtih sa partha tamasi
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
yayā — by which; svapnam — dreaming; bhayam — fearfulness; śokam — lamentation; viṣādam — moroseness; madam — illusion; eva — certainly; ca — also; na — never; vimuñcati — one gives up; durmedhā — unintelligent; dhṛtiḥ — determination; sā — that; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; tāmasī — in the mode of ignorance.