yayā tu dharma-kāmārthān
dhṛtyā dhārayate ’rjuna
dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 18.34
But that determination by which one holds fast to fruitive results in religion, economic development and sense gratification is of the nature of passion, O Arjuna.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Any person who is always desirous of fruitive results in religious or economic activities, whose only desire is sense gratification, and whose mind, life and senses are thus engaged is in the mode of passion.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
No commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
18.34 That Dhrti by which a person who, desirous of fruits, i.e., through intense attachment holds fast to duty, desires, and wealth, is of the nature of Rajas. By the terms ‘Dharma-kam’artha,’ the activities of the mind, vital force and senses as a means for the attainment of Dharma (duty) Kama (pleasure) and Artha (wealth) are signified. Even in the expression, ‘One desirous of fruits,’ that term indicates duty, desire and wealth, on account of the Rajasika nature of the aspirant. Therefore, what is said amounts to this: the Dhrti by which one maintains activities of the mind etc., with the purpose of attaining duty; desire and wealth, is of the nature of Rajas.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
The dhrita or determination whereby a jiva or embodied being is attached to actions in a stable and steady manner only due to desires for rewards of pleasure and hopes for recompense of wealth is designated by Lord Krishna as dhrita situated in raja guna the mode of passion.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
Sri Madhvacharya did not comment on this sloka.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Now Lord Krishna describes the dhriti or determination that is influenced by raja guna the mode of passion. The proposed activity which is engaged in for the purpose of reaping the rewards of worldly enjoyments and material possessions, which is executed with the conception that one is the doer and which one is attached to and zealous of such dhriti is undeniably situated in raja guna.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
18.34 Tu, but, O Partha; the dhrtya, firmness; yaya, with which; a person dharayate, holds on to; dharma-kama-arthan, righteousness, covetable things and wealth-entertains the conviction in the mind that these ought to be pursued always; and becomes phala-akanksi, desirous of their fruits; prasangena, as the occasion for each arises, according as the situation arises for holding on to any one of dharma etc.; sa, that; dhrtih, firmness; is rajasi, born of rajas.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
18.33-35 Dhrtya etc. upto Tamasi mata. One restrains the activities of his mind, living breath and senses, with Yoga : i.e., thinking ‘What is the use for me by enjoying etc. ? Let me be delighted in the Self by all means.’ Consequently : not with much indulgence. That content whereby one fixes pleasure as his goal only in sleep, fight etc.-that content is of the Tamas (Strand).
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
yaya tu dharma-kamarthan
dhrtya dharayate ’rjuna
dhrtih sa partha rajasi
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
yayā — by which; tu — but; dharma — religiosity; kāma — sense gratiﬁcation; arthān — and economic development; dhṛtyā — by determination; dhārayate — one sustains; arjuna — O Arjuna; prasańgena — because of attachment; phala-ākāńkṣī — desiring fruitive results; dhṛtiḥ — determination; sā — that; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; rājasī — in the mode of passion.