Bhagavad Gita 10.23

Text 23

rudranam sankaras casmi
vitteso yaksha-rakshasam
vasunam pavakas casmi
meruh sikharinam aham

Translation

Of all the Rudras I am Lord Shiva, of the Yakshas and Rakshasas I am the Lord of wealth [Kuvera], of the Vasus I am fire [Agni], and of mountains I am Meru.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

There are eleven Rudras, of whom Shankara, Lord Shiva, is predominant. He is the incarnation of the Supreme Lord in charge of the mode of ignorance in the universe. The leader of the Yakshas and Rakshasas is Kuvera, the master treasurer of the demigods, and he is a representation of the Supreme Lord. Meru is a mountain famed for its rich natural resources.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Vittesah, lord of wealth, means Kuvera.


Bhagavad Gita 10.24

Text 24

purodhasam ca mukhyam mam
viddhi partha brihaspatim
senaninam aham skandah
sarasam asmi sagarah

Translation

Of priests, O Arjuna, know Me to be the chief, Brihaspati. Of generals I am Kartikeya, and of bodies of water I am the ocean.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

Indra is the chief demigod of the heavenly planets and is known as the king of the heavens. The planet on which he reigns is called Indraloka. Brihaspati is Indra’s priest, and since Indra is the chief of all kings, Brihaspati is the chief of all priests. And as Indra is the chief of all kings, similarly Skanda, or Kartikeya, the son of Parvati and Lord Shiva, is the chief of all military commanders. And of all bodies of water, the ocean is the greatest. These representations of Krishna only give hints of His greatness.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Skanda means Kartikeya. The form senaninam is poetic license (the other form would be senaniyam).


Bhagavad Gita 10.25

Text 25

maharsinam bhrgur aham
giram asmy ekam aksharam
yajnanam japa-yajno ’smi
sthavaranam himalayah

Translation

Of the great sages I am Bhrgu; of vibrations I am the transcendental om. Of sacrifices I am the chanting of the holy names [japa], and of immovable things I am the Himalayas.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

Brahma, the first living creature within the universe, created several sons for the propagation of various kinds of species. Among these sons, Bhrgu is the most powerful sage. Of all the transcendental vibrations, the om (omkara) represents Krishna. Of all sacrifices, the chanting of Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare is the purest representation of Krishna. Sometimes animal sacrifices are recommended, but in the sacrifice of Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, there is no question of violence. It is the simplest and the purest. Whatever is sublime in the worlds is a representation of Krishna. Therefore the Himalayas, the greatest mountains in the world, also represent Him. The mountain named Meru was mentioned in a previous verse, but Meru is sometimes movable, whereas the Himalayas are never movable. Thus the Himalayas are greater than Meru.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Ekaksara, one syllable, refers to the pranava om.


Bhagavad Gita 10.26

Text 26

ashvatthah sarva-vrksanam
devarsinam ca naradah
gandharvanam citrarathah
siddhanam kapilo munih

Translation

Of all trees I am the banyan tree, and of the sages among the demigods I am Narada. Of the Gandharvas I am Citraratha, and among perfected beings I am the sage Kapila.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

The banyan tree (ashvattha) is one of the highest and most beautiful trees, and people in India often worship it as one of their daily morning rituals. Amongst the demigods they also worship Narada, who is considered the greatest devotee in the universe. Thus he is the representation of Krishna as a devotee. The Gandharva planet is filled with entities who sing beautifully, and among them the best singer is Citraratha. Amongst the perfect living entities, Kapila, the son of Devahuti, is a representative of Krishna. He is considered an incarnation of Krishna, and His philosophy is mentioned in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. Later on another Kapila became famous, but his philosophy was atheistic. Thus there is a gulf of difference between them.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

No commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur.


Bhagavad Gita 10.27

Text 27

uccaihsravasam asvanam
viddhi mam amrtodbhavam
airavatam gajendranam
naranam ca naradhipam

Translation

Of horses know Me to be Uccaihsrava, produced during the churning of the ocean for nectar. Of lordly elephants I am Airavata, and among men I am the monarch.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

The devotee demigods and the demons (asuras) once took part in churning the sea. From this churning, nectar and poison were produced, and Lord Shiva drank the poison. From the nectar were produced many entities, of which there was a horse named Uccaihsrava. Another animal produced from the nectar was an elephant named Airavata. Because these two animals were produced from nectar, they have special significance, and they are representatives of Krishna.

Amongst the human beings, the king is the representative of Krishna because Krishna is the maintainer of the universe, and the kings, who are appointed on account of their godly qualifications, are maintainers of their kingdoms. Kings like Maharaja Yudhishthira, Maharaja Parikshit and Lord Rama were all highly righteous kings who always thought of the citizens’ welfare. In Vedic literature, the king is considered to be the representative of God. In this age, however, with the corruption of the principles of religion, monarchy decayed and is now finally abolished. It is to be understood that in the past, however, people were more happy under righteous kings.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Among horses, I am Ucchaihsrava who arose from the churning of the nectar ocean (amrtodbhavam).


Bhagavad Gita 10.28

Text 28

ayudhanam aham vajram
dhenunam asmi kamadhuk
prajanas casmi kandarpah
sarpanam asmi vasukih

Translation

Of weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows I am the surabhi. Of causes for procreation I am Kandarpa, the god of love, and of serpents I am Vasuki.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

The thunderbolt, indeed a mighty weapon, represents Krishna’s power. In Krishnaloka in the spiritual sky there are cows which can be milked at any time, and they give as much milk as one likes. Of course such cows do not exist in this material world, but there is mention of them in Krishnaloka. The Lord keeps many such cows, which are called surabhi. It is stated that the Lord is engaged in herding the surabhi cows. Kandarpa is the sex desire for presenting good sons; therefore Kandarpa is the representative of Krishna. Sometimes sex is engaged in only for sense gratification; such sex does not represent Krishna. But sex for the generation of good children is called Kandarpa and represents Krishna.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Among the cows I am Kama dhenu (kamadhuk). Among the types of lust, I am lust for the purpose of producing offspring (prajanah).


Bhagavad Gita 10.29

Text 29

anantas casmi naganam
varuno yadasam aham
pitrnam aryama casmi
yamah samyamatam aham

Translation

Of the many-hooded Nagas I am Ananta, and among the aquatics I am the demigod Varuna. Of departed ancestors I am Aryama, and among the dispensers of law I am Yama, the lord of death.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

Among the many-hooded Naga serpents, Ananta is the greatest, as is the demigod Varuna among the aquatics. They both represent Krishna. There is also a planet of Pitas, ancestors, presided over by Aryama, who represents Krishna. There are many living entities who give punishment to the miscreants, and among them Yama is the chief. Yama is situated in a planet near this earthly planet. After death those who are very sinful are taken there, and Yama arranges different kinds of punishments for them.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Among the inhabitants of the water (yadasam) I am Varuna. Among those who punish (samyamatam) I am Yama.


Bhagavad Gita 10.30

Text 30

prahladas casmi daityanam
kalah kalayatam aham
mrganam ca mrgendro ’ham
vainateyas ca paksinam

Translation

Among the Daitya demons I am the devoted Prahlada, among subduers I am time, among beasts I am the lion, and among birds I am Garuda.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

Diti and Aditi are two sisters. The sons of Aditi are called Adityas, and the sons of Diti are called Daityas. All the Adityas are devotees of the Lord, and all the Daityas are atheistic. Although Prahlada was born in the family of the Daityas, he was a great devotee from his childhood. Because of his devotional service and godly nature, he is considered to be a representative of Krishna.

There are many subduing principles, but time wears down all things in the material universe and so represents Krishna. Of the many animals, the lion is the most powerful and ferocious, and of the million varieties of birds, Garuda, the bearer of Lord Vishnu, is the greatest.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Among subjugators (kalayatam) I am time. Among animals I am the lion (mrgendrah). Among birds I am Garuda (vainateyah).


Bhagavad Gita 10.31

Text 31 

pavanah pavatam asmi
ramah shastra-bhrtam aham
jhasanam makaras casmi
srotasam asmi jahnavi

Translation

Of purifiers I am the wind, of the wielders of weapons I am Rama, of fishes I am the shark, and of flowing rivers I am the Ganges.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

Of all the aquatics the shark is one of the biggest and is certainly the most dangerous to man. Thus the shark represents Krishna.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

Of moving or purifying agents, I am the wind. Among bearers of weapons, I am Parasurama. He is suitable as a vibhuti because he is an avesavatara, and because he is an outstanding jiva among those who have been given powers by the Lord. Padma Purana quoted in Bhagavatamrta says “O devi, I have recited to you the story of Parasurama, a saktyavesa avatara of the Lord.” Also it says, “He took birth as an empowered jiva.” The characteristics of the avesavatara are also mentioned in the Bhagavatamrta. “Where a jiva is filled with portions of jnana sakti or other sakti of the Lord, he is called avesavatara.” (Laghu Bhagavatamrta 1.4 .39, 1.4.38, 1.1.18) Among fish (jhasanam), I am the makara, a special type of fish. Among rivers (srotasam), I am the Ganga.


Bhagavad Gita 10.32

Text 32 

sarganam adir antas ca
madhyam caivaham arjuna
adhyatma-vidya vidyanam
vadah pravadatam aham 

Translation

Of all creations I am the beginning and the end and also the middle, O Arjuna. Of all sciences I am the spiritual science of the self, and among logicians I am the conclusive truth.

Commentary by Srila Prabhupada

Among the created manifestations, the first is the creation of the total material elements. As explained before, the cosmic manifestation is created and conducted by Maha-Vishnu, Garbhodakashayi Vishnu and Kshirodakashayi Vishnu, and then again it is annihilated by Lord Shiva. Brahma is a secondary creator. All these agents of creation, maintenance and annihilation are incarnations of the material qualities of the Supreme Lord. Therefore He is the beginning, the middle and the end of all creation.
For advanced education there are various kinds of books of knowledge, such as the four Vedas, their six supplements, the Vedanta-sutra, books of logic, books of religiosity and the Puranas. So all together there are fourteen divisions of books of education. Of these, the book which presents adhyatma-vidya, spiritual knowledge—in particular, the Vedanta-sutra—represents Krishna.

Among logicians there are different kinds of argument. Supporting one’s argument with evidence that also supports the opposing side is called jalpa. Merely trying to defeat one’s opponent is called vitanda. But the actual conclusion is called vada. This conclusive truth is a representation of Krishna.

Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur

I am the creation (adih) and destruction (antah) of ether and other elements (sarganam), and the maintenance of them as well. One should meditate upon creation, maintenance and destruction as my vibhutis. This means that I, the Supreme Lord, am the creator, maintainer and destroyer. Among types of knowledge, I am knowledge of the self. Among types of argumentation in order to establish ones own idea and defeat others ideas, such as jalpa and vitanda, I am vada, which attempts to discern actual truth with the goal of coming to a conclusion.