ādityānām ahaḿ viṣṇur
jyotiṣāḿ ravir aḿśumān
marīcir marutām asmi
nakṣatrāṇām ahaḿ śaśī
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 10.21
Of the Adityas I am Vishnu, of lights I am the radiant sun, of the Maruts I am Marici, and among the stars I am the moon.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
There are twelve Adityas, of which Krishna is the principal. Among all the luminaries twinkling in the sky, the sun is the chief, and in the Brahma-samhita the sun is accepted as the glowing eye of the Supreme Lord. There are fifty varieties of wind blowing in space, and of these winds the controlling deity, Marici, represents Krishna.
Among the stars, the moon is the most prominent at night, and thus the moon represents Krishna. It appears from this verse that the moon is one of the stars; therefore the stars that twinkle in the sky also reflect the light of the sun. The theory that there are many suns within the universe is not accepted by Vedic literature. The sun is one, and as by the reflection of the sun the moon illuminates, so also do the stars. Since Bhagavad-gita indicates herein that the moon is one of the stars, the twinkling stars are not suns but are similar to the moon.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The genitive case is use for the rest of the chapter to indicate a specific head of group and also to indicate a relation to a group. Among the twelve Adityas, I am Visnu, one of the names of the sun. This is my vibhuti. Among all lights, those things which reveal, I am the sun, with multitude of rays. Marici is outstanding among the winds.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
10.21 Of Adityas, who are twelve in number, I am the twelfth Aditya, called Visnu, who is paramount. Of luminuous bodies, namely, among luminaries in the world, I am the sun, the most brilliant luminary. Of Maruts I am the paramount Marici. Of constellations, I am the moon. The genitive case here is not to specify one out of many included in a group. Its use is the same as what is exemplifed in the statement ‘I am the consciousness in all beings’ (10.22). I am the moon who is the Lord of the constellations.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Commencing with this verse until the conclusion of this chapter Lord Krishna reveals His prominent vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence beginning with of the 12 Adityas He manifests Himself as Visnu incarnation manifesting in the form of the brahmin dwarf Vamana. Of luminaries He is the solar orbs, the radiant suns whose shining rays illuminate the darkness of unlimited, innumerable universes. Of the Maruts the seven groups of winds which flow throughout all space atmosphere, Lord Krishna is the wind known as Parivaha which precedes all the others and bears the name Marici. It should not be misconstrued that Lord Krishna is talking about one of the six great sages who were mind born by Brahma also with the same name as that is not correct. The words naksatranam aham sasi means that as the moon He is Lord over the 27 constellations beginning with Ashvini and ending with Revati due to the moon having a stronger influence. In this verse the word Vishnur is in the partitive case whereas in others the case ending is possessive. Although form this verse onwards the meanings are quite clear we shall show at selective verses throughout this chapter that even with regard to incarnations of the Supreme Lord Krishna such as Vishnu, the intention of describing them shows that their superlative power is exemplified as also a part of His vibuti.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
The Supreme Lord Krishna is called Vishnu who is one of His primary incarnations because He pervades all spaces. Vishva means all pervading and vish means entering into. The Moksa Dharma states: That the Supreme Lord is the goal for all creatures and conscious beings. By Him is the world and the sky enveloped and His glory is unlimited and immeasurable. Abiding within all living entities He desires their preservation and best welfare. Because of His strident all encompassing steps He is known as Trivikram another name for Vamanadeva an incarnation of Vishnu. It should be noted that His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence of Marici is not referring to one of the ancient sages of antiquity. His vibhuti of Marici is the primal breath that sweeps across all space preceding the Maruts which are the different types of powerful winds throughout the unlimited trillions of universes. The Rig Veda I.XXII.XVIII beginning trini pada vi chakrame vishnur gopa adabhyah ato dharmani dharayan states: In three great strides Vishnu the protecter, who is undefeatable upholds the perennial principles of sanatan dharma or eternal righteousness.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
From now until the end of the chapter the Supreme Lord Krishna enumerates His vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence. He reveals He is Vishnu of the 12 Adityas, All solar orbs whose rays illuminates unlimited galaxies and universes. He is the Parivaha wind which precedes all the others throughout space bearing the name Marici and among naksatranams or different constellations exercising their sphere of influence Lord Krishna is the moon which is superior to all of them in influence.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
10.21 Adityanam, among the twelve Adityas; aham, I; am the Aditya called Visnu. Jyotisam, among the luminaries; amsuman, the radiant; ravih, sun. Marutam, among the different gods called Maruts; asmi, I am; the one called Marici. Naksatranam, among the stars; I am sasi, the moon.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
10.19-42 Hanta te etc. upto jagat sthitah. I am the Soul etc. (verse 20) : By this [the Bhagavat] wards off the exclusion [of any being as different form Him]. Otherwise the sentences like ‘Of the immovable [I am] the the Himalayas’ (verse 25) etc., would amount to the exclusive statement that the Himalayan range is the Bhagavat and not any other one. In that case, the indiscriminateness of the Brahman is not established and hence the realisation of the Brahman would be a partial (or conditioned) one. For, the [present] text of exposition is intended for that seeker whose mind cannot contemplate on the all-pervasiveness [of the Brahman], but who [at the same time] is desirous of realising that [all-pervasiveness]. Hence, while concluding, [the Bhagavat] teaches the theory of duality-cumunity by saying ‘whatsoever being exists with the manifesting power’ etc., and then concludes the topic with the theory of absolute unity, as ‘Or what is the use of this elaboration;…..I remain pervading this [universe] by a single fraction [of Myself] This has been declared indeed [in the scriptures] as : ‘All beings constitute [only] His one-fourth; His [other] immortal three-forths are in the heaven.’ (Rgveda, X, xc, 3). Thus, all this and the prime cause of creatures, are nothing but the Bhagavat (Absolute). And hence, He Himself becomes the object of knowledge of all, but being comprehended with the different strange qualities.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
adityanam aham visnur
jyotisam ravir amsuman
maricir marutam asmi
naksatranam aham sasi
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
ādityānām — of the Ādityas; aham — I am; viṣṇuḥ — the Supreme Lord; jyotiṣām — of all luminaries; raviḥ — the sun; aḿśu-mān — radiant; marīciḥ — Marīci; marutām — of the Maruts; asmi — I am; nakṣatrāṇām — of the stars; aham — I am; śaśī — the moon.