jñeyaḥ sa nitya-sannyāsī
yo na dveṣṭi na kāńkṣati
nirdvandvo hi mahā-bāho
sukhaḿ bandhāt pramucyate
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 5.3
One who neither hates nor desires the fruits of his activities is known to be always renounced. Such a person, free from all dualities, easily overcomes material bondage and is completely liberated, O mighty-armed Arjuna.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
One who is fully in Krishna consciousness is always a renouncer because he feels neither hatred nor desire for the results of his actions. Such a renouncer, dedicated to the transcendental loving service of the Lord, is fully qualified in knowledge because he knows his constitutional position in his relationship with Krishna. He knows fully well that Krishna is the whole and that he is part and parcel of Krishna. Such knowledge is perfect because it is qualitatively and quantitatively correct. The concept of oneness with Krishna is incorrect because the part cannot be equal to the whole. Knowledge that one is one in quality yet different in quantity is correct transcendental knowledge leading one to become full in himself, having nothing to aspire to or lament over. There is no duality in his mind because whatever he does, he does for Krishna. Being thus freed from the platform of dualities, he is liberated—even in this material world.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
It should not be said that taking sannyasa gives liberation and not taking sannyasa does not give liberation. The pure hearted person engaged in action should be known as the constant sannyasi (nitya sannyasi). He is a true warrior who conquers the city of liberation, O Mighty-armed one (maha baho).
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
5.3 That Karma Yogin, who, being satisfied with the experience of the self implied in Karma Yoga, does not desire anything different therefrom and consequently does not hate anything, and who, because of this, resignedly endures the pairs of opposites — he should be understood as ever given to renunciation, i.e., even devoted to Jnana Yoga. Such a one therefore is freed from bondage because of his being firmly devoted to Karma Yoga which is easy to practise. The independence of Jnana Yoga and Karma Yoga from each other as means for attainment of the self is now declared.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Exactly how is karma yoga or performance of prescribed Vedic activities superior to renunciation? To answer this question Lord Krishna praises the followers of karma yoga who also renounce the rewards of their actions. Those who are free from attachment and aversion and who perform yagna or offerings of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord are to be known as renunciates. For one who is free from all dualities and has developed equanimity and purity of mind is easily free from samsara or the cycle of birth and death in the material existence.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
The characteristics of sannyasa or renunciation of the rewards of actions is given here by Lord Krishna to emphasise the superiority of sannyasa in and of itself.
Now begins the summation.
Characteristics of sannyasa are being described here such as being free from aversion and attraction and all dualities. Asceticism or the practice of tapasya or austerities is not what is meant here. What is meant here is the complete cessation of desire for the rewards of action as well as complete renunciation of the influence of all dualities such as happiness and distress which causes bondage in the world. So there is no contradiction in these two points.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Until now Lord Krishna has been referring to yogis or those following the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness as being renunciates. Such a yogi should always be considered a renunciate as being impelled for spiritual knowledge is the only motivation of action and thus being free from the influence of all dualities such as attraction and repulsion, happiness and distress, such a yogi is not subject to likes and dislikes and is free from samsara or the cycle of birth and death easily without effort.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
5.3 For, O mighty-armed one, he who is free from duality becomes easily freed from bondage. That performer of Karma-yoga, yah, who; na dvesti, does not hate anything; and na kanksati, does not crave; jneyah, should be known; as nitya-sannyasi, a man of constant [A man of constant renunciation: He is a man of renunciation ever before the realization of the actionless Self.] renunciation. The meaning is that he who continues to be like this in the midst of sorrow, happiness and their sources should be known as a man of constant renunciation, even though engaged in actions. Hi, for; mahabaho, O mighty-armed one; nirdvandvah, one who is free from duality; pramucyate, becomes freed; sukham, easily, without trouble; bandhat, from bondage. It is reasonable that in the case of renunciation and Karma-yoga, which are opposed to each other and can be undertaken by different persons, there should be opposition even between their results; but it canot be that both of them surely lead to Liberation. When such a question arises, this is the answer stated:
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
5.3 Jneyah etc. Therefore he alone is all the time man-of-renunciation, by whom both desire and hatred have been renounced from his mind. Because his intellect has come out of the pairs of anger, delusion and others, he is released just easily.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
jñeyah sa nitya-sannyasi
yo na dvesti na kanksati
nirdvandvo hi maha-baho
sukham bandhat pramucyate
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
jñeyaḥ — should be known; saḥ — he; nitya — always; sannyāsī — renouncer; yaḥ — who; na — never; dveṣṭi — abhors; na — nor; kāńkṣati — desires; nirdvandvaḥ — free from all dualities; hi — certainly; mahā-bāho — O mighty-armed one; sukham — happily; bandhāt — from bondage; pramucyate — is completely liberated.