yo ’ntaḥ-sukho ’ntar-ārāmas
tathāntar-jyotir eva yaḥ
sa yogī brahma-nirvāṇaḿ
brahma-bhūto ’dhigacchati

Translation of Bhagavad Gita 5.24

One whose happiness is within, who is active and rejoices within, and whose aim is inward is actually the perfect mystic. He is liberated in the Supreme, and ultimately he attains the Supreme.

Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:

Unless one is able to relish happiness from within, how can one retire from the external engagements meant for deriving superficial happiness? A liberated person enjoys happiness by factual experience. He can, therefore, sit silently at any place and enjoy the activities of life from within. Such a liberated person no longer desires external material happiness. This state is called brahma-bhuta, attaining which one is assured of going back to Godhead, back to home.

Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:

This verse states that one who transcends samsara attains realization of brahma and happiness. He who has happiness in the soul (antara), who enjoys in the soul, and whose vision consequently is directed to the soul, attains brahma nirvana.

Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:

5.24 He who, renouncing all the experiences of outside objects, ‘finds joy within,’ i.e., finds his sole joy in experiencing the self; ‘who has his pleasure within,’ i.e., whose pleasure-garden is the self; and with regard to whom the self increases his happiness by Its own qualities like bliss, knowledge, sinlessness, etc.; ‘whose light is within,’ i.e., who lives, directing his knowledge solely on the self — a person of such a description is the Yogin, who ‘having become the Brahman (the self), attains the bliss of the Brahman’ i.e., the bliss of experiencing the self.

Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:

One does not achieve moksa or liberation merely by subduing the urges of passion and anger. One must possess other characteristics as well. Lord Krishna reveals that one must be situated in atma tattva or realisation of the soul, revelling internally by this cognition, realising that real rejoicing is internal and not otherwise and so whose consciousness in incessant attention is constantly relishing the experience of the atma or soul residing inside the etheric heart within. Such a persons consciousness does not waste its attention on frivilous pursuits and mundane matters that have no connection to the Supreme Being and such a person alone becomes established in the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and becomes qualified for the Supreme Consciousness.

Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:

The qualities of a person possessing spiritual intelligence are delineated in the subsequent verses. The word antararamas means one who enjoys within denoting the atma or soul. True happiness is derived through the removal of all obstacles and impediments which obstruct access to the atma. Here it is alluded to as antar-jyotir or illuminated within. The resplendent Supreme Lord Krishna Himself is the source of all illumination indwelling as the internal light within of all beings as the atma. Even though all naturally created beings have this inner light only those of spiritual intelligence who are cognisant of it are referred to here. Those who are situated in samadhi or extreme internal meditation have no awareness of external matters. Even by seeing various activities in life they are unaffected within their consciousness and remain fixed and hence the pleasures which humans enjoy through the senses such as touching, hearing, tasting etc. do not affect such a person for the pleasure they derive is from the destruction of desires. In the Narada Purana it is stated that: Since Lord Krishna is self luminous His illumination abides internally and thus the cause of all internal happiness abides internally as well starting with perception of the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence.

Now begins the summation.

Abidance in the Brahman is factual otherwise there would be contradiction that one has to still reach the state of the Brahman. The internal happiness derived is due to one perceiving the Brahman within.

Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:

After instructing about withstanding the impulses of kama or lust and krodha or anger Lord Krishna reveals the confidential means of achieving atma tattva or realisation of the soul and moksa or liberation from material existence by the compound word antah-jyotih which means illuminated within. One who finds delight internally within and not externally in the fleeting pleasures of material existence which are so difficult to acquire and sustain. Such a person engaged in performing meditation on the atma or soul without any vestige of maya or illusion experiences bliss identifying exclusively with the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence which is of the pure nature of the atma.

Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:

5.24 Yah antah-sukhah, one who is happy within, in the indwelling Self; and so also antar-aramah, has pleasure within-he disports only in the Self within; similarly, antar-jyotih eva, has his light only within, has the indwelling Self alone as his light; [He has not to depend on the organs like ear etc. for acquiring knowledge.] sah yogi, that yogi; yah, who is of this kind; brahma-bhutah, having become Brahman, even while he is still living; adhigacchati, attains; brahma-nirvanam, absorption in Brahman-gets Liberation. Besides,

Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:

5.24 Yo’ntah etc : Within : For him there is happiness nowhere but within and it does not depend on any external object ; there alone he rejoices; his lustre is there only. But, there is an apparent ignorance [of him] in his worldly dealings. That has been said as – ‘[A man of realisation] would wander, like a fool, with no inclination for discussion.’ (PS, 71)

Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:

yo ’ntah-sukho ’ntar-aramas
tathantar-jyotir eva yah
sa yogi brahma-nirvanam
brahma-bhuto ’dhigacchati

Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:

yaḥ — one who; antaḥ-sukhaḥ — happy from within; antaḥ-ārāmaḥ — actively enjoying within; tathā — as well as; antaḥ-jyotiḥ — aiming within; eva — certainly; yaḥ — anyone; saḥ — he; yogī — a mystic; brahma-nirvāṇam — liberation in the Supreme; brahma-bhūtaḥ — being self-realized; adhigacchati — attains.