paśyāmi tvāḿ dīpta-hutāśa-vaktraḿ
sva-tejasā viśvam idaḿ tapantam
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 11.19
You are without origin, middle or end. Your glory is unlimited. You have numberless arms, and the sun and moon are Your eyes. I see You with blazing fire coming forth from Your mouth, burning this entire universe by Your own radiance.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
There is no limit to the extent of the six opulences of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Here and in many other places there is repetition, but according to the scriptures, repetition of the glories of Krishna is not a literary weakness. It is said that at a time of bewilderment or wonder or of great ecstasy, statements are repeated over and over. That is not a flaw.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
With words like anadi, Arjuna seems to repeat himself. Do not find fault however with the repetition in the words of Arjuna, who was submerged in the ocean of the rasa of great astonishment (maha vismaya rasa). It is said: prasade vismaye harse dvi-trir-uktam na dusyati: repetition of statements two or three times due to joy, astonishment or kindness is not a fault.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
11.19 I behold You as without beginning, middle and end. Your might is infinite, of unsurpassed excellence. Here the term ‘might’ is used for illustration. The meaning is that You are the sole repository of knowledge, strength, sovereignty, valour, power and glory, one whose excellence cannot be surpassed. Your arms are infinite, i.e., they are countless. This is also for illustration, implying that You have an infinite number of arms, stomachs, feet, mouths etc. The sun and moon are Your eyes; all Your eyes are like the moon and the sun, beaming with grace and power. The grace is directed towards the devotees like the gods who offer salutations etc., and power is directed against Asuras, Raksasas etc., who are opposed to these. For it will be said later on: ‘The Raksasas flee on all sides in fear, and all the hosts of Siddhas bow down to You’ (11.36). Your mouth is emitting fire, namely, the fire appropriate for destroying all things, as the Fire of Time consumes the world at the time of dissolution. With Your own radiance You are warming the universe. By radiance (Tejas) is meant the poweer to vanquish others. I behold You warming (or governing) the universe with Your own radiance. The meaning is this: ‘I directly realise You’ as taught before as the Creator of all, as the supporter of everything, as the sovereign over everything, as the destroyer of everything, as the ocean of knowledge and other infinite attributes, as without beginning, middle and end, and as possessing a divine body of this nature. How, in one divine body, can there be many stomachs etc.? This is possible in the following way: From a hip of infinite extent, stomachs etc., as described, branc off upwards. The divine feet etc., branch off downwards. So there is no contradiction in attributing a pair of eyes for each face. ‘On perceiving You to be thus, the gods etc., and myself, have become frightened — says Arjuna in the following words:
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Now Lord Krishna’s visvarupa or divine universal form is precisely perceived as non-different from Him being without beginning or birth, of infinite potency and power, having the sun and the moon for eyes and with blazing fires erupting from His unlimited mouths, illuminating as well as scorching the creation with its fiery radiance.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
In reference to Lord Krishna’s visvarupa or divine universal form having His eyes being the sun and moon. It should be understood as both the sun and the moon which originate from Him. Then this is in accordance with the Rig Veda that states: Since all the 330 million demigods have been produced from just a portion of the Supreme Lord they are glorified as His individual parts. Also other Vedic scriptures have stated: From the mind the moon was created and from the eyes the sun was created. In consideration of the infinite number of forms within it that can be seen it is appropriate to say that all these infinite forms have their refuge in the visvarupa.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna’s visvarupa or divine universal form is being described as anadi-madhya-antam meaning without beginning, middle or end with ananta- viryam or unlimitedly powerful of infinite prowess endowed with unlimited arms, heads, faces and eyes which are equated to the sun and moon. The cool rays of the moon soothe and nourish the devotees who are distraught in separation from the Supreme Lord. The scorching heat of the glowing sun punishes and chastises the demons like a blazing inferno which is comparable to the fire at the time of universal destruction.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
11.19 Pasyami, I see; tvam, You; as anadi-madhya-antam, without beginning, middle and end; ananta-viryam, possessed of infinite valour; and also ananta-bahum, having innumerable arms; sasi-surya-netram, having the sun and the moon as the eyes; dipta-hutasavakram, having a mouth like a blazing fire; tapantam, heating up; idam, this; visvam, Universe; sva-tejasa, by Your own birlliance.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
Sri Abhinavagupta did not comment on this sloka.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
pasyami tvam dipta-hutasa-vaktram
sva-tejasa visvam idam tapantam
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
anādi — without beginning; madhya — middle; antam — or end; ananta — unlimited; vīryam — glories; ananta — unlimited; bāhum — arms; śaśi — the moon; sūrya — and sun; netram — eyes; paśyāmi — I see; tvām — You; dīpta — blazing; hutāśa-vaktram — ﬁre coming out of Your mouth; sva-tejasā — by Your radiance; viśvam — universe; idam — this; tapantam — heating.