tvam akṣaraḿ paramaḿ veditavyaḿ
tvam asya viśvasya paraḿ nidhānam
tvam avyayaḥ śāśvata-dharma-goptā
sanātanas tvaḿ puruṣo mato me
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 11.18
You are the supreme primal objective. You are the ultimate resting place of all this universe. You are inexhaustible, and You are the oldest. You are the maintainer of the eternal religion, the Personality of Godhead. This is my opinion.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
No comentary by Srila Prabhupada.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
You are known by the strivers for liberation as brahman (aksaram). You are the place of destruction of all (nidhanam).
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
11.18 You alone are the Supreme ‘Imperishable Person’ indicated as that which ought to be realised in such Upanisadic passages as: ‘Two sciences are to be known’ (Mun. U., 1.1.4). You alone are the ‘Supreme Substratum’ of the universe, i.e., supreme support of this universe. You are ‘immutable’, namely, not liable to mutation. Whatever might be your attributes and divine manifestations, You remain unchanged in Your form. You alone are the guardian of ‘the eternal law’ — You who protect the eternal Dharma of the Veda by incarnations like this. I know you are the everlasting Person. I know You are the eternal Person, described in such passages as, ‘I know this great Purusa’ (Tai. A., 3.12.7) and ‘Person who is higher than the high’ (Mun. U., 3.2.8). You, who were till now known to me as the most distinguished of the race of Yadu, have been realised by me now through direct perception as of this nature, i.e., of a nature unknown to me before. Such is the meaning.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Bedecked with resplendent crowns, diadems, mace and disc illuminating all directions the Supreme Lord Krishna’s visvarupa or universal form was so effulgent and dazzling with a radiant lustre so bright that it was unfathomable and thus impossible to determine it fully.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna’s visvarupa or divine universal form was like a blazing fire, like a dazzling sun, an all illuminating radiant effulgence. The word aprameyam denotes beyond compare.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna’s visvarupa or divine universal form is specifically mentioned as being adorned with unlimited diadems, unlimited sceptres, unlimited flaming discs and unlimited accoutrements. A beaming bright lustre in an effulgent mass of splendour. The visvarupa has the radiance of blazing fire and dazzling sunlight making it difficult to gaze upon and impossible to discern its immeasurable appearance.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
11.18 Tvam, You; are the aksaram, Immutable; the paramam, supreme One, Brahman; veditavyam, to be known-by those aspiring for Liberation. You are the param, most perfect; nidhanam, repository-where things are deposited, i.e. the ultimate resort; asya visvasya, of this Universe, of the entire creation. Further. You are the avyayah, Imperishable-there is no decay in You; the sasvata-dharma-gopta, Protector (gopta) of the ever-existing (sasvata) religion (dharma). You are the sanatanah, eternal; transcendental purusah, Person. This is me, my; matah, belief-what is meant by me. Moreover,
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
Sri Abhinavagupta did not comment on this sloka.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
tvam aksaram paramam veditavyam
tvam asya visvasya param nidhanam
tvam avyayah sasvata-dharma-gopta
sanatanas tvam puruso mato me
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
tvam — You; akṣaram — the infallible; paramam — supreme; veditavyam — to be understood; tvam — You; asya — of this; viśvasya — universe; param — supreme; nidhānam — basis; tvam — You; avyayaḥ — inexhaustible; śāśvata-dharma-goptā — maintainer of the eternal religion; sanātanaḥ — eternal; tvam — You; puruṣaḥ — the Supreme Personality; mataḥ me — this is my opinion.