dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaḿ
vyūḍhaḿ duryodhanas tadā
rājā vacanam abravīt
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 1.2
Sanjaya said: O King, after looking over the army arranged in military formation by the sons of Pandu, King Duryodhana went to his teacher and spoke the following words.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Dhritarashtra was blind from birth. Unfortunately, he was also bereft of spiritual vision. He knew very well that his sons were equally blind in the matter of religion, and he was sure that they could never reach an understanding with the Pandavas, who were all pious since birth. Still he was doubtful about the influence of the place of pilgrimage, and Sanjaya could understand his motive in asking about the situation on the battlefield. Sanjaya wanted, therefore, to encourage the despondent king and thus assured him that his sons were not going to make any sort of compromise under the influence of the holy place. Sanjaya therefore informed the king that his son, Duryodhana, after seeing the military force of the Pandavas, at once went to the commander in chief, Dronacarya, to inform him of the real position. Although Duryodhana is mentioned as the king, he still had to go to the commander on account of the seriousness of the situation. He was therefore quite fit to be a politician. But Duryodhana’s diplomatic veneer could not disguise the fear he felt when he saw the military arrangement of the Pandavas.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Please see text 3 for Sri Vishwanatha Chakravarthi Thakur’s combined commentary to texts 2 and 3.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
1.1 – 1.19 Dhrtarastra said — Sanjaya said — Duryodhana, after viewing the forces of Pandavas protected by Bhima, and his own forces protected by Bhisma conveyed his views thus to Drona, his teacher, about the adequacy of Bhima’s forces for conquering the Kaurava forces and the inadequacy of his own forces for victory against the Pandava forces. He was grief-stricken within. Observing his (Duryodhana’s) despondecny, Bhisma, in order to cheer him, roared like a lion, and then blowing his conch, made his side sound their conchs and kettle-drums, which made an uproar as a sign of victory. Then, having heard that great tumult, Arjuna and Sri Krsna the Lord of all lords, who was acting as the charioteer of Arjuna, sitting in their great chariot which was powerful enough to conquer the three worlds; blew their divine conchs Srimad Pancajanya and Devadatta. Then, both Yudhisthira and Bhima blew their respective conchs separately. That tumult rent asunder the hearts of your sons, led by Duryodhana. The sons of Dhrtarastra then thought, ‘Our cause is almost lost now itself.’ So said Sanjaya to Dhrtarastra who was longing for their victory. Sanjaya said to Dhrtarastra: Then, seeing the Kauravas, who were ready for battle, Arjuna, who had Hanuman, noted for his exploit of burning Lanka, as the emblem on his flag on his chariot, directed his charioteer Sri Krsna, the Supreme Lord-who is overcome by parental love for those who take shelter in Him who is the treasure-house of knowledge, power, lordship, energy, potency and splendour, whose sportive delight brings about the origin, sustentation and dissolution of the entire cosmos at His will, who is the Lord of the senses, who controls in all ways the senses inner and outer of all, superior and inferior — by saying, ‘Station my chariot in an appropriate place in order that I may see exactly my enemies who are eager for battle.’
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Having seen the armies of the Pandavas arrayed in military formation ready for battle, King Duryodhana approaches his preceptor Drona and spoke the following words.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
Sri Madhvacharya did not comment on this sloka.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
In this way, Vaisampayana reiterates the answer of Sanjaya who could truly understand the blind Dtritarastra’s hidden desire his heart being locked in affection for his sons welfare irregardless of righteousness. Sanjaya then replies that King Duryodhana upon seeing the formidable army of the Pandava arranged in military phalanxes approached Drona his instructor in archery and weaponry and uttered these words. By this verse the alarm within the mind of Duryodhana caused by seeing the might of the Pandava army is subtlety suggested.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
1.2 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. The commentary starts from 2.10.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
1.2 –– 1.9 Why this exhaustive counting? The reality of things is this:
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
drstva tu pandavanikam
vyudham duryodhanas tada
raja vacanam abravit
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
sañjayaḥ uvāca — Sañjaya said; dṛṣṭvā — after seeing; tu — but; pāṇḍava-anīkam — the soldiers of the Pāṇḍavas; vyūḍham — arranged in a military phalanx; duryodhanaḥ — King Duryodhana; tadā — at that time; ācāryam — the teacher; upasańgamya — approaching; rājā — the king; vacanam — words; abravīt — spoke.