paramaḿ puruṣaḿ divyaḿ
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 8.8
He who meditates on Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, his mind constantly engaged in remembering Me, undeviated from the path, he, O Partha, is sure to reach Me.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
In this verse Lord Krishna stresses the importance of remembering Him. One’s memory of Krishna is revived by chanting the maha-mantra, Hare Krishna. By this practice of chanting and hearing the sound vibration of the Supreme Lord, one’s ear, tongue and mind are engaged. This mystic meditation is very easy to practice, and it helps one attain the Supreme Lord. Purusham means enjoyer. Although living entities belong to the marginal energy of the Supreme Lord, they are in material contamination. They think themselves enjoyers, but they are not the supreme enjoyer. Here it is clearly stated that the supreme enjoyer is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His different manifestations and plenary expansions as Narayana, Vasudeva, etc.
The devotee can constantly think of the object of worship, the Supreme Lord, in any of His features—Narayana, Krishna, Rama, etc.—by chanting Hare Krishna. This practice will purify him, and at the end of his life, due to his constant chanting, he will be transferred to the kingdom of God. Yoga practice is meditation on the Supersoul within; similarly, by chanting Hare Krishna one fixes his mind always on the Supreme Lord. The mind is fickle, and therefore it is necessary to engage the mind by force to think of Krishna. One example often given is that of the caterpillar that thinks of becoming a butterfly and so is transformed into a butterfly in the same life. Similarly, if we constantly think of Krishna, it is certain that at the end of our lives we shall have the same bodily constitution as Krishna.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Therefore, that person who practices remembrance of me will naturally remember me at the time of death. By that, he will attain me. Therefore, remembering me by the mind is the highest yoga. That is expressed in this verse. Abhyasa means to repeatedly remember me. The mind should be engaged in this method (yoga) of repetition of remembering me, without wandering to other objects of remembrance. By this practice one will conquer of the nature of the mind.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
8.8 Contemplating on Me, the Supreme Divine Person, in the way to be specified further, at the last moment, with a mind trained by constant practice and Yoga, and not moving towards anything else, one reaches Me alone, i.e., attains a form similar to that of Mine, by virtue of the attributes of enjoyment and the prosperity contemplated upon, like the royal sage Bharata who acquired the form of a deer on account of contemplating on it at the last moment. Abhyasa is the training of the mind to be often in touch with the object of meditation at all times without obstruction to the performance of the prescribed periodical and occasional rituals. Yoga is the meditation practised day by day at the time of Yoga practice in the manner prescribed.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
The method of practice that is the direct means to ensure constant remembrance is being revealed with the words cetasa nanya gamina meaning with an undeviating mind. This method means one’s thoughts finely focused on one thing. That in itself is the meditated state of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. To the mind that has become habituated to this yoga and is fixed and concentrated on the divine and resplendent, ultimate being and reality the Supreme Lord Krishna, never deviating their consciousness to anything else attains Him excluisvely.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
In this verse Lord Krishna reveals the methodology of remaining fixed in the divine, transcendental nature. The words abhyasa yoga yuktena meaning engagement in yoga, is what leads to purity of mind and equanimity. Therefore it is practically the practice of eqanimity. The Purusa or supreme being is divine and dwells within the puri or city of the human body with nine gates being two eyes, two ears two nostrils, one mouth etc., in entirety. The Purusa is never enveloped by anything internally not is He ever enveloped by anything externally. The word divyam means divine and denotes reveling in all species of creation along with their activities. The word divyam indicates this having for its root the word div which means to revel.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
In this way Lord Krishna answered Arjuna’s seven questions and as well revealed the way to attain the Supreme Lord Himself. Now in order to elaborate on the precise type and methodology He speaks the words cetasa nanya gamina or with an undeviating mind. One who with their mind disciplined and firmly established in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, by the practice of meditation. Contemplating in one’s mind daily the qualities and attributes of the desired and cherished Supreme Lord; at fixed times and at times that are not fixed, thinking of nothing else then the object of one’s focused meditation is recognised by the resplendent and effulgent Supreme Lord Himself residing in the core of one’s heart and attains Him in the eternal spiritual worlds at the moment of death.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
8.8 Partha, O son of Prtha; anu-cintayan, by meditating, i.e. contemplating in accordance with (anu) the instruction of teachers and scriptures; cestasa, with a mind; abhyasa-yogayuktena, engaged in the yoga of practice-abhyasa, practice, consists in the repetition of the same kind of thought, uninterupted by any contrary idea, with regard to Me who am the object of concentration of the mind; that practice itself is yoga; the mind of a yogi is engrossed (yuktam) in that itself; with a mind that is such, and na anya-gamina, which does not stray away to anything else which is not inclined to go away to any other object; yati, one reaches; the paramam, supreme, unsurpassed; purusam, Person; divyam, existing in the effulgent region (divi), in the Solar Orb. And, to what kind of a Person does he go? This is being stated:
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
8.8 Abhyasa-etc., He, who is engaged in the after-reflection : he who reflects on the Bhagavat after the pain created by the body has ended following the break of [his connection with] the body.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
paramam purusam divyam
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
abhyāsa-yoga — in the practice of meditation; yuktena — being engaged; cetasā — by the mind and intelligence; na anya-gāminā — without their being deviated; paramam — the Supreme; puruṣam — Personality of Godhead; divyam — transcendental; yāti — one achieves; pārtha — O son of Pṛthā; anucintayan — constantly thinking of.