yaj jñātvā na punar moham
evaḿ yāsyasi pāṇḍava
yena bhūtāny aśeṣāṇi
drakṣyasy ātmany atho mayi
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 4.35
Having obtained real knowledge from a self-realized soul, you will never fall again into such illusion, for by this knowledge you will see that all living beings are but part of the Supreme, or, in other words, that they are Mine.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The result of receiving knowledge from a self-realized soul, or one who knows things as they are, is learning that all living beings are parts and parcels of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krishna. The sense of an existence separate from Krishna is called maya (ma—not, ya—this). Some think that we have nothing to do with Krishna, that Krishna is only a great historical personality and that the Absolute is the impersonal Brahman. Factually, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, this impersonal Brahman is the personal effulgence of Krishna. Krishna, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the cause of everything. In the Brahma-samhita it is clearly stated that Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the cause of all causes. Even the millions of incarnations are only His different expansions. Similarly, the living entities are also expansions of Krishna. The Mayavadi philosophers wrongly think that Krishna loses His own separate existence in His many expansions. This thought is material in nature. We have experience in the material world that a thing, when fragmentally distributed, loses its own original identity. But the Mayavadi philosophers fail to understand that absolute means that one plus one is equal to one, and that one minus one is also equal to one. This is the case in the absolute world.
For want of sufficient knowledge in the absolute science, we are now covered with illusion, and therefore we think that we are separate from Krishna. Although we are separated parts of Krishna, we are nevertheless not different from Him. The bodily difference of the living entities is maya, or not actual fact. We are all meant to satisfy Krishna. By maya alone Arjuna thought that the temporary bodily relationship with his kinsmen was more important than his eternal spiritual relationship with Krishna. The whole teaching of the Gita is targeted toward this end: that a living being, as Krishna’s eternal servitor, cannot be separated from Krishna, and his sense of being an identity apart from Krishna is called maya. The living entities, as separate parts and parcels of the Supreme, have a purpose to fulfill. Having forgotten that purpose since time immemorial, they are situated in different bodies, as men, animals, demigods, etc. Such bodily differences arise from forgetfulness of the transcendental service of the Lord. But when one is engaged in transcendental service through Krishna consciousness, one becomes at once liberated from this illusion. One can acquire such pure knowledge only from the bona fide spiritual master and thereby avoid the delusion that the living entity is equal to Krishna. Perfect knowledge is that the Supreme Soul, Krishna, is the supreme shelter for all living entities, and giving up such shelter, the living entities are deluded by the material energy, imagining themselves to have a separate identity. Thus, under different standards of material identity, they become forgetful of Krishna. When, however, such deluded living entities become situated in Krishna consciousness, it is to be understood that they are on the path of liberation, as confirmed in the Bhagavatam (2.10.6): muktir hitvanyatha-rupam svarupena vyavasthitih. Liberation means to be situated in one’s constitutional position as an eternal servitor of Krishna (Krishna consciousness).
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The result of knowledge is described in three and a half verses. Understanding that you are not the body but the soul, you will not have bewilderment, which is the quality of the mind. By destroying bewilderment through the attainment of natural knowledge of the eternally perfect soul, you will see all living entities, such as men and beasts, as jivatma (atmani), but situated as separate creatures by material identification, and you will also see them situated in me (mayi), the supreme cause since they are my products.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
4.35 Having which knowledge, you will not again fall into this delusion of mistaking the body etc., for the self, which is the cause of possessiveness etc. By this (knowledge) you will see in yourself all the beings which appear in diversity of forms such as gods, men etc.; for between you and other beings there is equality of nature when freed from the hold of Prakrti, as your self and all other selves have the form of knowledge as fas as their essence is concerned. Sri Krsna will later on instruct that the nature of the self, dissociated from the evil of contact with Prakrti, is equal in all beings. ‘For faultless Brahman (individual self) is alike everywhere; therefore, abide in Brahman’ (5.19). And then you will see all beings without any exception in Me, because of the similarity of nature of the pure selves with one another and with My nature. For Sri Krsna will teach later on: ‘Resorting to this knowledge and partaking of My nature’ (14.5). So the euality of the selves, devoid of name and form, with the nature of the Supreme, is known from the texts like: ‘Then the wise, shaking off good and evil, stainless, attain supreme equality’ (Mun. U., 3.1.3). Therefore all selves dissociated from Prakrti are equal in nature to one another and equal in nature to the Lord of all. [The idea is that blissfulness is the basic nature of all selves. Blissfulness (Ananda) is the nature of the Supreme Being also. Equality contemplated is in this respect only, but not in power of creation, which belongs only to Isvara]
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna now reveals the results of spiritual knowledge that came by inquiring from a self-realised being and that is one will never again be deluded by the illusionary energy thinking that friends and relatives can actually cease to exist. By this spiritual knowledge one will realise the eternal atma or soul within the etheric heart and will see that this eternal soul is within all beings and is the same as one’s own soul and then one will perceive themselves as part of the Supreme Being and perceiving further will see that the Supreme Being in all its wonderous glory and majesty is identical with Lord Krishna.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
By such spiritual knowledge one will realise their atma or soul and seeing the atma within all beings pervading all creation one will perceive that they are all equal as part of the Supreme Being and that the Supreme Being is identical with Lord Krishna.
Now begins the summation.
The word atmani refers to Lord Krishna’s special attribute as paramatma or the super soul within all living beings by which one realises the oneness of all beings in creation.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Now regarding the situation on the battlefield, Lord Krishna is clarifying to Arjuna that by this knowledge he will no longer be deluded by the illusion of relatives, friends and preceptors dying and the infatuation of thinking that if they did he would not even want to continue living; because with spiritual knowledge he will realise his atma or soul and will see the soul in all beings is identical with his soul and he will percieve that all souls are the actual body of the Supreme Being and that all these individual souls are pervaded by the Supreme Being and they are never independent from the Supreme Being in the state of bondage or the state of liberation and then it will be perceived that the Supreme Being is identical with Lord Krishna. The difference in various beings is only in their outer physical form which is the product of primordial matter but the atma or soul is purely spiritual and eternal and of the nature of spiritual realisation, not subject to any modification and thus equally situated and established in all beings who were naturally created from material nature. The atma is not a different or separate entity from the Supreme Being.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
4.35 Jnatva, knowing; yat, which-by acquiring which Knowledge imparted by them; O Pandava, na vasyasi, you will not come under; moham, delusion; punah, again; evam, in this way, in the way you have come under delusion now. Besides, yena, through which Knowledge; draksyasi, you will see directly; bhutani, all beings; asesena, without exception, counting from Brahma down to a clump of grass; atmani, in the Self, in the innermost Self, thus-‘These beings exist in me’ ; and atha, also; see that these are mayi. in Me, in Vasudeva, the supreme Lord. The purport is, ‘You will realize the identity of the individual Self and God, which is well known in the Upanisads.’ Moreover, the greatness of this Knowledge is:
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
4.34-35 Tat etc. Yaj=jnatva etc. This : the knowledge. By prostration : by devotion. By inquiry : by the consideration of pros and cons, by good reasoning etc. By service : by practice. You should learn [this], For, those that are endowed with knowledge i.e., your own different sense-organs, that are exceedingly favoured by consciousness, will point out nearby i.e., will lead the truth to you if you remain practising in the said manner. For this, it has been said that they (sense-organs) are capable of showing the truth i.e., they show nothing but the truth. That has been said : ‘The Yoga alone is the teacher of Yoga [practice]’ and ‘On [reaching] that [seeded Yoga] [there arises] an insight, truth-bearing’ (YS, I, 48). If ‘those that are endowed with knowledge’ is interpreted to mean ‘other wise persons’, then it would amount to say that what the Bhagavat Himself had taught is untruth. Or, the purpose of saying in this manner may be to teach a conventional rule : Other persons too should learn from the men of wisdom only by prostration etc., and not by any other means. The [locatives] atmani ‘in your Self’ and mayi ‘in Me’ are in the same-case-relationship, and they mean ‘in your Soul that has attained (realised Its) identity with Me’. Atho is an expletive. In order to established the [total] sameness (identity) of the Absolute with the [individual] Self, a certain characteristic mark [of the two], is mentioned [here]. If the non-sameness (non-identity) [of these two] is intended, then the meanings ‘choice’ etc., [of atho] have no relevance here. Saying that ‘the sin also perishes’ in the first verse [of following two], in order to clarify the earlier statement ‘all actions, leaving no bit, [meet their end in knowledge’ – verse 33 above]; indicating, by ‘all actions’ – in the second verse-that the suggested meaning of ‘leaving no bit (verse 33)’ is ‘not even a bit of mental impression [of actions] survives’; [the Lord] explains-
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
yaj jñatva na punar moham
evam yasyasi pandava
yena bhutany asesani
draksyasy atmany atho mayi
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
yat — which; jñātvā — knowing; na — never; punaḥ — again; moham — to illusion; evam — like this; yāsyasi — you shall go; pāṇḍava — O son of Pāṇḍu; yena — by which; bhūtāni — living entities; aśeṣāṇi — all; drakṣyasi — you will see; ātmani — in the Supreme Soul; atha u — or in other words; mayi — in Me.