Translation of Bhagavad Gita 4.27
Others, who are interested in achieving self-realization through control of the mind and senses, offer the functions of all the senses, and of the life breath, as oblations into the fire of the controlled mind.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The yoga system conceived by Patanjali is referred to herein. In the Yoga-sutra of Patanjali, the soul is called pratyag-atma and parag-atma. As long as the soul is attached to sense enjoyment it is called parag-atma, but as soon as the same soul becomes detached from such sense enjoyment it is called pratyag-atma. The soul is subjected to the functions of ten kinds of air at work within the body, and this is perceived through the breathing system. The Patanjali system of yoga instructs one on how to control the functions of the body’s air in a technical manner so that ultimately all the functions of the air within become favorable for purifying the soul of material attachment. According to this yoga system, pratyag-atma is the ultimate goal. This pratyag-atma is withdrawn from activities in matter. The senses interact with the sense objects, like the ear for hearing, eyes for seeing, nose for smelling, tongue for tasting, hand for touching, and all of them are thus engaged in activities outside the self. They are called the functions of the prana-vayu. The apana-vayu goes downwards, vyana-vayu acts to shrink and expand, samana-vayu adjusts equilibrium, udana-vayu goes upwards—and when one is enlightened, one engages all these in searching for self-realization.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Others, knowledgeable of tvam, the pure soul, offer the activities of all the senses, such as hearing and seeing as well as the activities of the ten pranas into the fire of purity (samyama) of the jiva (tvam). These yogis make the mind, intelligence, senses and ten pranas disappear. They think that only the soul perceiving inwards (pratyag atma) exists, not the mind or other things. The actions of the ten pranas are as follows. The prana goes outward (exhaling), the apana goes downwards (expelling). The samana assimilates food and drink. The udana leads upwards and the vyana is pervading, regulating the other pranas.
udgare naga akhyatah kurmas tunmilane smrtah
krkarah ksut-karo jneyo devadatto vijrmbhane
na jahati mrte kvapi sarvavyapi dhanamjayah
Naga governs belching, kurma causes opening of the eyes, krkara causes sneezing and hunger, and devadatta causes yawning and sleep. Dhananjaya, pervading the whole body, lingers after death, causing decomposition. Gheranda-samhita 5.64
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
4.27 Some again offer as oblations all the functions of the senses, the activities of the vital breath etc., into the fire of Yoga of restraint of the mind kindled by knowledge. They endeavour to prevent the mind from getting attached to the functions of the senses and vital breaths. That is, by contemplating on the self they sublimate these energies and overcome even the lurking subtle desires for them.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Others refers to those in jnana yoga or cultivation of Vedic knowledge who meditate in self-purification by offering all their senses like hearing and seeing along with all their organs like the ears and eyes and offer as well the assimilation of all food and drink along with the ten vital airs and even offering the inhaling breath into the exhaling breath. Krikara is known as producing hunger, naga is to be known as eructation, kurma as opening the eyelids, devadatta is the function of yawning and dhananjaya permeates the entire physical body remining even after death. How is it that even these functions are dissolved? They are evaporated by the fire of self-control and yoga or the science of the individual consciousness communing with the ultimate consciousness. Meditation by focusing the mind on the atma or soul is yoga. This yoga is the fire that which is kindled and lit by the knowledge of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. Lord Krishna purport is that by knowledge of the goal of meditation and concentrating the mind on the atma to realise it, all the functions of the body naturally induced to cease.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
The compound words atma-samyama-yogagnau means with the intelligence controlled by the soul by the fire of yoga or the individual consciousness in communion with the ultimate consciousness. This infers that due to spiritual wisdom and knowledge an intensity of self-restraint and determination is activated. It must be emphasised here that mere mechanical control of the senses will not bring the desired result. When the mind has achieved full knowledge and wisdom it perceives that it is no longer needs to control the senses because by discrimination the senses are naturally restrained and one becomes qualified to gain communion with the ultimate consciousness.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna speaks of more qualified yogis or one who practices the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. These yogis are free from attachment to external sense objects because their senses are already under complete control. In this way they offer all their senses such as seeing and hearing and all the natural functions of the body such as speaking, eating, drinking and even breathing as they offer the inhalation into the exhalation and vice versa. Eructation of the body such as the belching sound heard from eating and drinking is to keep the body balanced by letting out air. All these things these yogis offer in the fire of self-purification because by doing so all negative effects are consumed. This allows the mind to be controlled and not diverted to extraneous things making it qualified for meditation kindled by wisdom giving firm resolve and fixed determination to achieve the goal of atma tattva or soul realisation.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
4.27 Further, apare, others; juhvati, offer, i.e. merge; sarvani, all; indriya-karmani, the activities of the organs; and also the prana-karmani, activities of the vital force- prana means the air in the body; they offer its activities such as contraction, expansion, etc; atma-samyama yoga-agnau, into the fire of the yoga of self-control-withdrawal (samyama) [Samyama consists of concentration, meditation, and Self-absorption. The idea conveyed by the verse is that by stopping all activities, they concentrate the mind on the Self.] into the Self (atma) is self-control (atma-samyama); that itself is the fire of yoga (yoga-agni); (they offer) into that fire; jnana-dipite, which has been lighted by Knowledge, made to blaze up by discriminating knowledge, as if lighted up by oil.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
4.27-28 Sarvani etc. Dravyayajnak etc. Again all the activities of their sense-organs, the activities of their mind, and the activities of their vital airs, such as issuing through the mouth and nose, driving down the urine etc., other [seekers] established in the fire of concentration, named Yoga, which is the means for subduing the self i.e., the mind, and which is set ablaze by i.e., to be filled with, knowledge. The idea is this : With their intellect that has completely abandoned all other activities due to their concentration on the object, they receive the object that is being perceived on conceived. That has been stated in the Sivopanisad : ‘When the intellect, concentrated on a certain object, not rejected, would not go to another object, at that time the meditation, remaining in the core of the objects, blossoms very much.’ Thus the Yoga-sacrifices are explained. So far the performers of the material-object-sacrifices, the austerity-sacrifices, and the yoga-sacrifices have been defined. Those, who are the performers of the svadhyaya-knowledge-sacrifices are defined now [as] –
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
sarvāṇi — of all; indriya — the senses; karmāṇi — functions; prāṇa-karmāṇi — functions of the life breath; ca — also; apare — others; ātma-saḿyama — of controlling the mind; yoga — the linking process; agnau — in the ﬁre of; juhvati — offer; jñāna-dīpite — because of the urge for self-realization.