ye vidur yānti te param
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 13.35
Those who see with eyes of knowledge the difference between the body and the knower of the body, and can also understand the process of liberation from bondage in material nature, attain to the supreme goal.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The purport of this Thirteenth Chapter is that one should know the distinction between the body, the owner of the body, and the Supersoul. One should recognize the process of liberation, as described in verses eight through twelve. Then one can go on to the supreme destination.
A faithful person should at first have some good association to hear of God and thus gradually become enlightened. If one accepts a spiritual master, one can learn to distinguish between matter and spirit, and that becomes the steppingstone for further spiritual realization. A spiritual master, by various instructions, teaches his students to get free from the material concept of life. For instance, in Bhagavad-gita we find Krishna instructing Arjuna to free him from materialistic considerations.
One can understand that this body is matter; it can be analyzed with its twenty-four elements. The body is the gross manifestation. And the subtle manifestation is the mind and psychological effects. And the symptoms of life are the interaction of these features. But over and above this, there is the soul, and there is also the Supersoul. The soul and the Supersoul are two. This material world is working by the conjunction of the soul and the twenty-four material elements. One who can see the constitution of the whole material manifestation as this combination of the soul and material elements and can also see the situation of the Supreme Soul becomes eligible for transfer to the spiritual world. These things are meant for contemplation and for realization, and one should have a complete understanding of this chapter with the help of the spiritual master.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
The Lord summarizes the contents of the chapter.
Those who know the difference between two knowers of the field (ksetra jnayoh), the jiva and paramatma, along with the field, and also the method of liberation (moksa) from prakrti for the living entities (bhuta), such as meditation, achieve the supreme goal.
Among the knowers of the field, the jiva, enjoying the qualities of the field, is bound up, but is also liberated by knowledge. This is the meaning of the chapter.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
13.35 Those who ‘discern thus’ in the described manner the ‘difference’, namely, the difference between the body and the knower of the body with ‘the eye of knowledge’ or discrimination, and also the ‘means of deliverance from manifested Prakrti’ — they attain the ‘highest’, namely, the self. They are completely delivered from bondage. Moksa is that by which deliverance is effected. The means of deliverance as already stated consists of qualities beginning with modesty (13.7). They, through the knowledge already imparted concerning the differences between the body and the self, know those differences existing between them. Then learning about modesty etc., which form the means of deliverance from Prakrti that has devleoped into material elements constituting the body, they have to practise these virtues, and they will thereby be absolutely delivered from bondage and will reach the self marked by infinite knowledge abiding in Its own form.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
The actual purport of this chapter is now being concluded. Those with the spiritual eye of discriminative knowledge can see the difference and distinction between the material ksetra or sphere of activity and the spiritual ksetrajna or knower of the sphere of activity. Who by reflection and meditation understand the path to moksa or freedom from material existence and its corollary of samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Such persons attain param pure spiritual existence.
I bow down to the Supreme Lord Krishna who appeared as the son of Nanda Maharaj in Vrindavan at the end of Dvapara Yuga and who is of the nature of ananda or unending bliss. Who eloquently elaborated and concisely clarified what is generally misunderstood that is: The distinct difference between transitory prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence and the eternal purusa the Supreme Being who manifests as paramatma the Supreme Soul in each and every jiva or embodied being everywhere in creation and is the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
The path of deliverance from prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence and moksa or liberation from the material existence for the jivas is achieved by embracing the 20 virtues given in verses 8 to 12 of this chapter beginning with the word amanitvam meaning humilty, reverence.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Lord Krishna concludes this chapter with a brief synopsis of what He has elaborated upon distinguishing the ksetra or sphere of activity and the ksetrajna or the knower of the sphere of activity. The atma or the individual immortal soul and paramatma or the all pervading Supreme Soul and the difference of both from each other as well as from prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence. He proclaims that those by the vision of knowledge inferring that was acquired by the teachings of the spiritual master from the Vedic scriptures through who realise these things achieve perfection and attain the supreme destination.
I take complete refuge in the Supreme Lord Krishna, the omniscient and omnipotent Supreme Being, the controller of all. Who out of causeless compassion categorically instructed the discriminative knowledge of the ksetra and the ksetrajna.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
13.35 Ye, those who; viduh, know; evam, thus, in the manner described above; jnana-caksusa, through the eye of wisdom-the eye is the realization in the form of the knowledge of the Self, which arises from following the instructions of the scriptures and teachers; through that eye of wisdom; antaram, the distinction, the particular mutual distinction; ksetra-ksetrajnayoh, beween the field and the Knower of the field as they have been explained; and bhuta-prakrti-moksam, the annihilation of the Matrix of beings-the Matrix of beings is that which is described as ignorance and is called the Unmanifest; (those who know) the annihilation (moksanam) of that Matrix of beings; te, they; yanti, reach, go to; param, the Supreme, to Brahman, the Reality which is the suprme Goal. The idea is that they do not take up a body again.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
13.35 Yatha etc. But, how is it that a single Supreme Self pervades many a Field ? This doubt has even been removed by the well known example, the sun. The entire Field : It means [all] the movable and immovable Fields.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
ye vidur yanti te param
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
kṣetra — of the body; kṣetra-jñayoḥ — of the proprietor of the body; evam — thus; antaram — the difference; jñāna-cakṣuṣā — by the vision of knowledge; bhūta — of the living entity; prakṛti — from material nature; mokṣam — the liberation; ca — also; ye — those who; viduḥ — know; yānti — approach; te — they; param — the Supreme.