anantaś cāsmi nāgānāḿ
varuṇo yādasām aham
pitṝṇām aryamā cāsmi
yamaḥ saḿyamatām aham
Translation of Bhagavad Gita 10.29
Of the many-hooded Nagas I am Ananta, and among the aquatics I am the demigod Varuna. Of departed ancestors I am Aryama, and among the dispensers of law I am Yama, the lord of death.
Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Among the many-hooded Naga serpents, Ananta is the greatest, as is the demigod Varuna among the aquatics. They both represent Krishna. There is also a planet of Pitas, ancestors, presided over by Aryama, who represents Krishna. There are many living entities who give punishment to the miscreants, and among them Yama is the chief. Yama is situated in a planet near this earthly planet. After death those who are very sinful are taken there, and Yama arranges different kinds of punishments for them.
Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:
Among the inhabitants of the water (yadasam) I am Varuna. Among those who punish (samyamatam) I am Yama.
Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:
10.26 – 10.29 Of trees I am Asvattha which is worthy of worship. Of celestial seers I am Narada. Kamadhuk is the divine cow. I am Kandarpa, the cause of progeny. Sarpas are single-headed snakes while Nagas are many-headed snakes. Aquatic creatures are known as Yadamsi. Of them I am Varuna. Of subdures, I am Yama, the son of the sun-god.
Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:
Of Nagas or non-poisonous snakes, Lord Krishna vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is Ananta the divine serpent upon whose head unlimited universes revolve resembling the size of a mustard seed. Of aquatics He is Varuna the ruler of the waters. Of the manes or ancestors His vibhuti is Aryaman the king of the manes and of chastisers or those who mete out punishment Lord Krishna’s vibhuti is Yamaraja the demigod in charge of death and punishment after death.
Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:
Sri Madhvacharya did not comment on this sloka.
Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:
Among non-poisonous serpents of many heads Lord Krishna’s vibhuti or divine, transcendental opulence is the divine snake Ananta endowed with the qualities of dispassion, mightiness, etc. Among the controllers of the demigods who direct universal management His vibhuti is Yamaraja the demigod in charge of death who blesses the righteous and punishes the unrighteous.
Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:
10.29 Naganam, among snakes, of a particular species of snakes; asmi, I am Ananta, the King of snakes. And Varuna, the King yadasam, of the gods of the waters. Pitrnam, among the manes; I am the King of the manes, named Aryama. And samyamatam, among the maintainers of law and order I am Yama.
Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:
10.19-42 Hanta te etc. upto jagat sthitah. I am the Soul etc. (verse 20) : By this [the Bhagavat] wards off the exclusion [of any being as different form Him]. Otherwise the sentences like ‘Of the immovable [I am] the the Himalayas’ (verse 25) etc., would amount to the exclusive statement that the Himalayan range is the Bhagavat and not any other one. In that case, the indiscriminateness of the Brahman is not established and hence the realisation of the Brahman would be a partial (or conditioned) one. For, the [present] text of exposition is intended for that seeker whose mind cannot contemplate on the all-pervasiveness [of the Brahman], but who [at the same time] is desirous of realising that [all-pervasiveness]. Hence, while concluding, [the Bhagavat] teaches the theory of duality-cumunity by saying ‘whatsoever being exists with the manifesting power’ etc., and then concludes the topic with the theory of absolute unity, as ‘Or what is the use of this elaboration;…..I remain pervading this [universe] by a single fraction [of Myself] This has been declared indeed [in the scriptures] as : ‘All beings constitute [only] His one-fourth; His [other] immortal three-forths are in the heaven.’ (Rgveda, X, xc, 3). Thus, all this and the prime cause of creatures, are nothing but the Bhagavat (Absolute). And hence, He Himself becomes the object of knowledge of all, but being comprehended with the different strange qualities.
Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:
anantas casmi naganam
varuno yadasam aham
pitrnam aryama casmi
yamah samyamatam aham
Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:
anantaḥ — Ananta; ca — also; asmi — I am; nāgānām — of the many-hooded serpents; varuṇaḥ — the demigod controlling the water; yādasām — of all aquatics; aham — I am; pitṝṇām — of the ancestors; aryamā — Aryamā; ca — also; asmi — I am; yamaḥ — the controller of death; saḿyamatām — of all regulators; aham — I am.