Bhagavad Gita 1.30


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na ca śaknomy avasthātuḿ
bhramatīva ca me manaḥ
nimittāni ca paśyāmi
viparītāni keśava

Translation of Bhagavad Gita 1.30

I am now unable to stand here any longer. I am forgetting myself, and my mind is reeling. I see only causes of misfortune, O Krishna, killer of the Keshi demon.

Commentary by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada of Gaudiya Sampradaya:

Due to his impatience, Arjuna was unable to stay on the battlefield, and he was forgetting himself on account of this weakness of his mind. Excessive attachment for material things puts a man in such a bewildering condition of existence. Bhayam dvitiyabhinivesatah syat (Bhag. 11.2.37): such fearfulness and loss of mental equilibrium take place in persons who are too affected by material conditions. Arjuna envisioned only painful reverses in the battlefield—he would not be happy even by gaining victory over the foe. The words nimittani viparitani are significant. When a man sees only frustration in his expectations, he thinks, “Why am I here?” Everyone is interested in himself and his own welfare. No one is interested in the Supreme Self. Arjuna is showing ignorance of his real self-interest by Krishna’s will. One’s real self-interest lies in Vishnu, or Krishna. The conditioned soul forgets this, and therefore suffers material pains. Arjuna thought that his victory in the battle would only be a cause of lamentation for him.

Commentary by Sri Vishvanatha Chakravarthi Thakur of Gaudiya Sampradaya:

Nimitta is used in the sense of “end result”, just as the goal of money is a good residence. I will not get happiness by attaining the kingdom if I win the war, but rather will suffer sorrow, the opposite result.

Commentary by Sri Ramanuja of Sri Sampradaya:

1.26 – 1.47 Arjuna said — Sanjaya said — Sanjaya continued: The high-minded Arjuna, extremely kind, deeply friendly, and supremely righteous, having brothers like himself, though repeatedly deceived by the treacherous attempts of your people like burning in the lac-house etc., and therefore fit to be killed by him with the help of the Supreme Person, nevertheless said, ‘I will not fight.’ He felt weak, overcome as he was by his love and extreme compassion for his relatives. He was also filled with fear, not knowing what was righteous and what unrighteous. His mind was tortured by grief, because of the thought of future separation from his relations. So he threw away his bow and arrow and sat on the chariot as if to fast to death.

The Supreme Lord Krishna, Hrsikesa, the master of the senses. The Supreme Controller, internally and externally of all living entities evolving and evolved. Who although the Supreme Lord of all, yet descended down to Earth out of His causeless mercy for the redemption of the faithful and even more, He condescended to be Arjuna’s chariot driver, carrying out his wish to station their chariot in such a commanding position as to be able to readily view the belligerent Kauravas and put within the range of his vision such heroes as Bhishmadeva, Dronacarya and Kripa and the Kings of royal dynasties. At that time the Supreme Lord Krishna said to Arjuna: see what chances there are for the Kauravas victory over thee.

Commentary by Sri Sridhara Swami of Rudra Sampradaya:

Furthermore I am not able to stand here and compose myself for I see adverse omens and portents which forebode evil.

Commentary by Sri Madhvacharya of Brahma Sampradaya:

Sri Madhvacharya did not comment on this sloka.

Commentary by Sri Keshava Kashmiri of Kumara Sampradaya:

The burning sensation in his skin and tremors in the left side of the body are all indicative of evil forecasting adverse omens of dire consequences.

Commentary by Sri Adi Shankaracharya of Advaita Sampradaya:

1.30 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. The commentary starts from 2.10.

Commentary by Sri Abhinavagupta of Kaula Tantra Sampradaya:

1.30 – 1.34 Na ca sreyah, etc., upto mahikrte. Those who are wrongly conceived as object of slaying, with the individualizing idea that ‘these are my teachers etc.’8 would necessarily generate sin. Similarly, the act of slaying even of those deserving to be slain in the battle-if undertaken with the idea that ‘This battle is to be fought for the apparent results like pleasures, happiness etc.’- then it generates sin necessarily. This idea lurks in the objection [of Arjuna]. That is why a reply is going to be given [by Bhagavat] as ‘You must undertake actions simply as your own duty, and not with an individualizing idea.

Sanskrit Shloka Without Transliteration Marks:

na ca saknomy avasthatum
bhramativa ca me manah
nimittani ca pasyami
viparitani kesava

Sanskrit to English Word for Word Meanings:

na — nor; ca — also; śaknomi — am I able; avasthātum — to stay; bhramati — forgetting; iva — as; ca — and; me — my; manaḥ — mind; nimittāni — causes; ca — also; paśyāmi — I see; viparītāni — just the opposite; keśava — O killer of the demon Keśī (Kṛṣṇa).


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